In 37 BC, Mark Anthony sailed to Alexandria. He renewed his relationship with Cleopatra. They were married according to Egyptian tradition. From this point, Alexandria would be their home.
That same year, Mark Anthony renewed his battle against the Parthian Empire. He captured Jerusalem and an the surrounding areas and appointed Herod (the Great) as king of Judea. Mark Anthony's first invasion of Parthian Armenia was a disaster. His second invasion of Armenia was successful.
In 34 BC Mark Anthony, surrounded by Cleopatra and her children, Mark Anthony distributed the kingdoms between his children with Cleopatra. Cleopatra and her son by Julius Caesar (Caesarion) were declared Queen and King of Egypt. Mark Anthony's actions completed the breach with Octavian and Rome.
In 31 BC, the civil war between Octavian and Mark Anthony began. On September 2, the naval battle of Actium took place. Mark Anthony and Cleopatra were forced to flee back to Alexandria. In August 30 BC, Octavian invaded Egypt. Mark Anthony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
With the death of Mark Anthony, Octavian was the undisputed ruler of Rome. The fall of the Roman Republic was complete The rise of the Roman Empire was beginning.
The death of Cleopatra VII, marks the end of the Hellenistic era begun by Alexander the Great in 360 BC. The Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean was beginning. Cleopatra VII was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, ruled only a few years before being executed by Octavian.
These coins are replicas of original pieces. The are not original pieces.